Vitamins

Homocysteine, Elevated Blood Level (Hyperhomocysteinemia)

What Is Elevated Homocysteine? Elevated homocysteine in blood, called hyperhomocysteinemia, indicates an abnormal blood level of this transient amino acid. Q: How does the level of homocysteine become abnormal? A: In metabolism, homocysteine is briefly formed in the breakdown of ...

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Dry Eyes, Chronic

What Is Chronic Dry Eye Syndrome? Chronic dry eye syndrome is an inflammatory condition of the conjunctiva with inadequate tear production or distribution over the eye surface. It is characterized by surface damage to the conjunctiva, giving the appearance of ...

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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

What Is Eczema? Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic recurring inflammatory skin disorder characterized by itching, eczematous plaques and a defective epidermal barrier (surface layer of skin cells) that fails to hold moisture, with affected areas becoming dry then inflamed. ...

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Vitamin B12 Deficiency

What Is Vitamin B12? Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a highly complex vitamin that functions in two coenzyme forms: adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. These forms of the vitamin play important roles in the physical and chemical processes by which amino ...

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Folate Deficiency (Folic Acid)

What Is Folate? Folate, also called folic acid or vitamin B9, is a family group of essential water-soluble B vitamins needed to produce healthy blood cells and other tissue cells. Folate is required for healthy blood cells, the metabolism of at ...

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Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency

What Is Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)? Pyridoxine is an essential vitamin that is required for the health of nerves, bones, blood, arteries, blood sugar, the immune system and metabolism of proteins. Two important functions of pyridoxine involve coenzymes that are involved ...

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Muscle Weakness 

What Is Muscle Weakness? Muscle weakness is the impaired status of muscle function characterized by decreased or low muscle strength and inability to perform normal work such as lifting a pot off the stove. Q: How do muscles work? A: ...

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Cataracts

What Are Cataracts? Cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens in an affected eye characterized by blurred vision and progressive blindness due to loss of the len’s ability to focus light rays on the retina. Cataracts can occur ...

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Peripheral Neuropathy 

What Is Peripheral Neuropathy? Peripheral neuropathy is a syndrome involving damage to one or more peripheral nerves characterized by impaired nerve transmission. Peripheral nerves are nerves of the body outside the brain and spinal cord. Q: Why is nerve transmission impaired? ...

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Autism and Learning Disabilities

What Is Autism and Learning Disabilities? Autism and learning disabilities constititute a non-progressive psychiatric syndrome appearing in childhood characterized by withdrawal from communication with others often accompanied by repetitive or primitive behaviors. Primary gastrointestinal pathology may play an important role ...

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Nails, Splinter Hemorrhages In

What Are Splinter Hemorrhages In Nails? Subungual (under the nail) splinter hemorrhage is characterized by fragility of the underlying capillaries resulting in bleeding under the nail . Bleeding that results looks like a brown streak or splinter.1 Because the streak of ...

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Nails, Horizontal Ridges (Beau’s Lines), Fragile

What Are Horizontal Ridges In Fragile Nails? Horizontal ridges, also called “beau’s lines,” are abnormalities of the nail plate that appear as rumpling from the base to the tips of nails and are characterized by poor nail structure of both fingernails and ...

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Cancer Predisposition In Children 

What Is Cancer Predisposition In Children? Cancer predisposition in children signifies a higher than normal risk of developing cancer. Cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in the body. Among the 12 major types of childhood cancers, leukemias (blood ...

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Developmental Delay

What Is Developmental Delay? Developmental delay is failure in infants and young children to meet expected milestones, such as smiling for the first time or taking the first steps, due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. These ...

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Osteomalacic Myopathy

osteomalacic myopathy in celiac disease

What Is Osteomalacic Myopathy? Osteomalacic myopathy is a major feature of osteomalacia that is characterized by painful muscle weakness involving the thighs and upper arms and hyperreflexia. Q: What is hyperreflexia? A: Hyperreflexia means the action of reflexes is increased. ...

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