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Antibody Disorders

This category comprises disorders that are caused by an immune mechanism producing antibodies.

Antibodies are specialized proteins of the immune system called immunoglobulins. Each antibody consists of 4 polypeptides, comprised of about 100 amino acids, forming a Y shaped molecule. The site on the antibody that binds with an antigen is at the tips of the Y. Each antibody is unique and defends the body against the one specific antigen it recognizes.
Antibodies that target the body’s own tissue are called autoantibodies. Auto means “self.”

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 

What Is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that is characterized by involvement of multiple organs due to the production of antibodies to components of the cell nucleus.1 SLE has an unpredictable course of acute ...

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Sjögren’s Syndrome 

What Is Sjögren’s Syndrome? Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a chronic, progressive course that primarily attacks the lacrimal glands of the eye and the salivary glands of the mouth, which are exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete the substances they ...

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Autoimmune Disorders In Celiac Disease

What Are Autoimmune Disorders? Autoimmune disorders refer to those conditions that involve an abnormal immune attack on the body’s own tissues perpetuated by the production of autoantibodies directed against the body, or “self.” Auto means self. Q: Why does the ...

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Asthma

What Is Asthma? Asthma is a chronic immune respiratory condition characterized by narrowing and inflammation of the lung airways (large bronchi, bronchial tubes and small bronchioles) in response to an allergen as the trigger or stimulus. As such, asthma occurs ...

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Urticaria or Hives, Chronic

What Is Chronic Urticaria? Urticaria is an immune based skin disorder characterized by multiple eruptions of well-demarcated edematous, intensely pruritic (itchy) plaques that may be small or reach the diameter of many centimeters with surrounding erythema (redness) each lasting less ...

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Food Allergy – IgE and Non IgE

What Is Food Allergy? Food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food proteins that may damage the small intestinal  lining and produce malabsorption of food. The reaction is usually delayed which makes it difficult to identify the offending food that ...

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Anti-Endomysium Antibodies (EMA) Present In Blood

What Are Anti-Endomysium Antibodies? Anti-endomysium antibodies (EmA) are connective tissue autoantibodies produced in persons who have inherited the genes for celiac disease, an autoimmune disease, and are reacting to gluten in their diet. Autoantibodies are abnormal in that they attack ...

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Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies (tTG) Present In Blood

What Are Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies? Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) are connective tissue autoantibodies and can be detected in blood samples from affected persons who are reacting to gluten in the diet. Autoantibodies are abnormal because they attack the body’s own ...

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Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes 

What Are Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes? Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) are rare clusterings of two or more endocrine and non-endocrine autoimmune disorders in the same affected person. Polyglandular is somewhat of a misnomer since many of the manifestations of the diseases ...

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Antiphospholipid Syndrome

What Is Antiphospholipid Syndrome? Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease and a blood clotting disorder characterized by these clinical and laboratory criteria: Clinical criteria – recurrent vascular thrombosis (clots in veins/arteries) from hypercoagulability (abnormal excessive clotting) and/or recurrent complications of ...

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Juvenile Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

What Is Juvenile Autoimmune Thyroid Disease? Juvenile autoimmune thyroid disease is an autoimmune disorder occurring in childhood that targets and damages the thyroid gland, often causing goiter. It is characterized by abnormal circulating thyroid hormone levels in the bloodstream. Recent evidence ...

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis In Childhood

What Is Dermatitis Herpetiformis In Childhood? Dermatitis herpetiformis in childhood is an inflammatory skin manifestation of celiac disease in which immunoglobulin A (IgA) autoantibodies target components of the skin, leading to blister formation caused by ingestion of gluten in the diet.   Dermatitis ...

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Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood or Linear IgA Dermatosis

What Is Chronic Bullous Dermatosis Of Childhood? Chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood, also termed linear IgA dermatosis, is the most common acquired autoimmune blistering disorder of childhood and is characterized by itchy, urticated papules and plaques as well as polycyclic lesions (merged ...

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Hair, Fine With Rough Texture

What Is Fine Hair With Rough Texture? Fine hair (lower diameter across the width) with rough texture is an abnormal hair shaft feature altered from the normal diameter and smooth quality of hair. Q: What is the normal diameter and smooth quality of ...

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IgA Deficiency

What Is IgA Deficiency? IgA deficiency (IgAD) is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by lack of immunoglobulin A type antibody production, called IgA antibody, with no detectable levels in blood or secretions. Q: What is an IgA antibody? A: IgA is ...

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