Vitamins

Secondary Amenorrhea

What Is Secondary Amenorrhea? Secondary amenorrhea is a menstrual disorder characterized by absence of menstruation for more than 3 months in females who had previously menstruated. Menstruation is the shedding of the endometrium (inner lining) of the uterus that occurs two weeks ...

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Spina Bifida 

What Is Spina Bifida? Spina bifida is a congenital defect of neural tube closure and among the commonest and most severe disorders of the fetus and newborn.1 Spina bifida is a defect in the walls of the spinal canal in ...

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 

What Is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that is characterized by involvement of multiple organs due to the production of antibodies to components of the cell nucleus.1 SLE has an unpredictable course of acute ...

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Tetany

What Is Tetany? Tetany is a painful feature of low blood calcium or low blood magnesium causing hyperexcitability of all nerves which in turn stimulates involuntary sudden, intermittent and repetitious tonic spasms of muscles. Tonic spasms are steady rather than jerky. Causes include ...

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Tongue – Beefy Red, Smooth, Burning 

What Is Beefy Red, Smooth, Burning Tongue? Beefy, red, smooth, burning tongue is an inflammatory alteration in tongue tissue characteristic of vitamin B12 deficiency. Inflammation makes the tongue red and sore which, when untreated, progresses to atrophied papillae (shrunken taste ...

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Tongue – Fiery Red, Smooth, Burning

What Is A Fiery Red, Smooth, Burning Tongue? A fiery red, smooth, burning tongue is an alteration in tongue tissue that is characteristic of advanced niacin deficiency.1 Q: How does niacin deficiency cause the tongue to be red and sore? ...

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Uveitis, Non-Infectious  

What Is Non-Infectious Uveitis? Non-infectious uveitis, as opposed to that which is caused by an infection, is an inflammatory eye disorder characterized mainly by swelling of the uveal tract structures in the anterior (front) of the eye.   Inflammation can also affect the ...

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Vitality, Loss of

What Is Loss of Vitality? Loss of vitality is a state of diminished power to live or go on living, interfering with normal functioning and survival. As weakness and fatigue worsen, the affected person increasingly loses interest in surroundings, activites, and ...

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Vitamin A Deficiency

What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of fat-soluble compounds that are essential for health, vision, protection of the body, reproduction, and normal growth of children before and after birth. Q: What is the family of vitamin A? ...

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Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Deficiency

thiamin deficiency

What Is Thiamin? Thiamin, also called vitamin B1, is an essential vitamin that is required to convert foodstuffs into energy and for the health and proper functioning of the nervous, muscular and cardiovascular systems. In the bloodstream, 90% of active ...

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Vitamin B12 Deficiency

What Is Vitamin B12? Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a highly complex vitamin that functions in two coenzyme forms: adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. These forms of the vitamin play important roles in the physical and chemical processes by which amino ...

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Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

vitamin b12 gluten celiac disease

What Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia? Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a megaloblastic anemia that is characterized by defective DNA synthesis of red blood cells due to a lack of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is essential for normal blood cell formation. ...

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Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Deficiency

What Is Riboflavin? Riboflavin, also called vitamin B2, is fundamentally required for the breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats in metabolism, enables oxygen to be used by cells, and acts as a component of more than a dozen enzymes involved ...

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Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Deficiency

What Is Vitamin B3 (Niacin)? Niacin is an essential water-soluble B vitamin that is required by all cells of the body. During digestion of food containing it, niacin (the form in food) is changed in the small intestines to the active form niacinamide (niacin ...

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Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency

What Is Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)? Pyridoxine is an essential vitamin that is required for the health of nerves, bones, blood, arteries, blood sugar, the immune system and metabolism of proteins. Two important functions of pyridoxine involve coenzymes that are involved ...

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