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Vitamin B12 Deficiency

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Clams Are Chock Full of Vitamin B12.

Lovely Clams For Vitamin B12.

What Is Vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a highly complex vitamin that functions in two coenzyme forms: adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin.

These forms of the vitamin play important roles in the physical and chemical processes by which amino acids become proprionate, proprionate that becomes acetate,  and single carbons.

Q: Why are these steps important?

A: These steps are essential for normal function in the workings of all cells, especially for those of the digestive tract, bone marrow and nervous tissue.

Vitamin B12 is mainly excreted through bile into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) for excretion in stool.1 However, if vitamin B12 is needed, it is reabsorbed in the ileum (end of the small intestine) while excess is excreted in stool and very little in urine.2

The blood level of vitamin B12 in healthy people ranges between 140 and 750 pg/ml.

What Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Celiac Disease and/or Gluten Sensitivity?


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  1. Shibata K, Hirose J, Fukuwatari T. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males. Nutr Metab Insights. 2014 Aug 5;7:61-75. doi: 10.4137/NMI.S17245. []
  2. Shinton N K. Vitamin B 12 and folate metabolism. Br Med J. Feb 26, 1972; 1(5799): 556–559. []