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System – Digestive

Disorders of the digestive system cause damage to tissues and/or dysfunction of the organs that make up the digestive system: the mouth including salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, sigmoid colon, rectum and anus. Organs that help with digestion but are not part of the digestive tract are the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

Increased Intestinal Permeability (Leaky Gut)

What Is Increased Intestinal Permeability? Increased intestinal permeability is characterized by dysfunctional intestinal permeability (leakiness) allowing for the penetration of harmful entities from the gut into the bloodstream such as undigested proteins and microbes. The popular name is “leaky gut.” ...

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a motility disorder without anatomic cause involving the entire gastrointestinal tract that is characterized by these four features: 1) Abdominal pain usually relieved by defecation or passing of gas; 2) ...

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Jejunitis, Chronic Ulcerative

What Is Chronic Ulcerative Jejunitis? Chronic ulcerative jejunitis is a disease of the small intestine that is characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the mucosal lining of the jejunum. Q: How do inflammation and ulceration affect digestion in the jejunum? A: ...

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Lactose Intolerance

What Is Lactose Intolerance? Lactose intolerance is a well known symptom of carbohydrate malabsorption characterized by inability to properly digest lactose, the sugar in milk, due to low lactase digesting activity in the small intestine. Lactase is an enzyme produced ...

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Laryngospasm

What Is Laryngospasm? Laryngospasm is an acute disorder of the larynx that is characterized by life-threatening spasms of the muscles of the larynx located in the throat. Laryngospasm is a rare feature of hypocalcemia (low blood calcium level) characterized by ...

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Low Stomach Acid Production

What Is Low Stomach Acid Production? Low stomach acid production is a common disorder in celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis that is characterized by lack of sufficient hydrochloric acid needed 1) to properly digest food, which results in malnutrition and ...

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Lymphoma, Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell (EATL) 

What Is Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma? Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), although rare, is a tumor of intraepithelial lymphocytes. It is the most common primary gastrointestinal T-cell lymphoma and is characterized by its aggressive course and poor prognosis. Primary means this ...

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Maltose Intolerance

What Is Maltose Intolerance? Maltose intolerance is an enzymopathy (enzyme failure) characterized by inability of the gut to properly break down maltose sugar molecules in food due to low maltase enzyme activity of the small intestinal lining. Q: What is ...

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Milk Intolerance – Bovine Beta Casein Enteropathy

What Is Milk Intolerance (Bovine Beta Casein Enteropathy)? Bovine beta casein enteropathy is characterized by raised serum IgA antibodies to bovine beta casein found by blood testing and damage to mucosa of the jejunum found by biopsy. The jejunum is the second ...

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Multiple Gastric Ulcerations 

What Are Multiple Gastric Ulcerations? Multiple gastric ulcerations denote a stomach disorder that involves damage to the superficial mucosa characterized by many sores of the stomach antrum that are marked by inflammation, necrosis (death of the affected cells) and sloughing of ...

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Oral Mucosal Lesions, Chronic (Mouth Soreness)

What Are Chronic Oral Mucosal Lesions? Chronic lesions of the oral mucosa are disorders of the mouth that are characterized by soreness and sores of the soft mucosal lining of the mouth. What Are Chronic Oral Mucosal Lesions In Celiac ...

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Penicillin V Impaired Absorption in Children 

What Is Penicillin V Impaired Absorption In Children? Penicillin V impaired absorption in children is characterized by lack of ability to absorb the oral antibiotic medicine, penicillin V,  from the small intestine. Q: What is penicillin V? A: Penicillin V ...

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Plummer-Vinson Syndrome Affecting Esophagus

What Is Plummer-Vinson Syndrome Affecting the Esophagus? Plummer-Vinson syndrome is a manifestation of severe, long-term, iron deficiency anemia that is characterized by post-cricoid esophageal webs and dysphagia. Q: What are esophageal webs? A: Esophageal webs are one or more thin ...

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis 

What Is Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis? Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an uncommon, slowly progressive bile duct disease that results in stagnation or build-up of bile in the liver, called cholestasis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is characterized by sclerosis, or scarring inflammation ...

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Small Bowel Intussusception

What Is Small Bowel Intussusception? Small bowel intussusception is a bowel derangement that is characterized by the slipping of one section of intestine into another, leading to bowel obstruction. Acute bowel intussusception is a rare manifestation in adults, which mainly involves ...

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