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Vitamins, Fat Soluble

Night Blindness – Nyctalopia

What Is Night Blindness? Night blindness is a visual defect caused by lack of rhodopsin in the rods of the retina located in the back of the eyeball due to inadequate vitamin A. Q: How does inadequate vitamin A cause ...

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Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

What Is Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease? Non-alcoholic fatty liver is a non-inflammatory liver disorder characterized by degenerative changes in the liver caused by excessive accumulation of lipid (fat) in hepatocytes (liver cells) that is called free fatty acid-generated lipotoxicity. Non-alcoholic ...

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Nosebleeds, Unexplained (Epistaxis)

What Is Epistaxis? Epistaxis, or nosebleed, is a feature of secondary hemostasis (blood clotting) characterized by fragility of a plexus of blood vessels in the antero-inferior septum (just inside nostril) and/or abnormal blood coagulation. What Is Epistaxis In Celiac Disease ...

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Obstetrical Complications

What Are Obstetrical Complications? Obstetrical complications are reproductive disorders during pregnancy, labor and delivery that endanger the mother and unborn infant. Complications may result from prolonged constipation, malnutriton, hormonal imbalance, infection, systemic disease such as diabetes, obesity, tumors of the uterus, ...

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Oral Mucosal Lesions, Chronic (Mouth Soreness)

What Are Chronic Oral Mucosal Lesions? Chronic lesions of the oral mucosa are disorders of the mouth that are characterized by soreness and sores of the soft mucosal lining of the mouth. What Are Chronic Oral Mucosal Lesions In Celiac ...

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Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica 

What Is Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica? Osteitis fibrosa cystica is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decalcification and softening of bones with bone cyst formation and bone tumors developing from effects of chronic vitamin D deficiency causing hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid adenoma ...

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Osteomalacia

What Is Osteomalacia? Osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disorder that causes abnormal skeletal changes characterized by generalized reduction in bone density (bone softening) in adults and pseudofractures (apparant on x-ray) with muscular weakness and bone tenderness. Bones have the normal amount of ...

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Osteomalacic Myopathy

osteomalacic myopathy in celiac disease

What Is Osteomalacic Myopathy? Osteomalacic myopathy is a major feature of osteomalacia that is characterized by painful muscle weakness involving the thighs and upper arms and hyperreflexia. Q: What is hyperreflexia? A: Hyperreflexia means the action of reflexes is increased. ...

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Osteopenia In Childhood 

What Is Osteopenia In Childhood? Osteopenia is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by diminished bone mass with the retention of normal cell appearance and high bone turnover. That is, bone production does not keep up with bone loss. Bones looks ...

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Osteoporosis

What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by diminished bone mass (density) with normal cell appearance but fragile bone strength that prediposes to broken bones, and with high bone turnover. This condition usually goes undetected until late ...

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Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

What Is Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris? Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a chronic generalized exfoliative dermatitis (sloughing skin) characterized by erythema (redness), scaling, dilated plugged hair follicles, and keratoderma (thickened skin) of the hands and feet that is often associated with ...

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PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) 

What Is PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)? Premenstrual syndrome is a menstrual disorder that occurs regularly during the last week of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and starts to subside a few days before menstruation begins and is absent the ...

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Primary Hyperparathyroidism

What Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism? Primary hyperparathyroidism is a parathyroid disorder characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone by one or more parathyroid glands for more than 6 months. In primary hyperparathyroidism, blood calcium levels are high while phosphorus levels are ...

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Progressive Myoclonic Ataxia 

What Is Progressive Myoclonic Ataxia? Progressive myoclonic ataxia is a movement disorder characterized by defective muscular coordination of a muscle group with its origin in the brain. The pathology is in the cerebellum.1 Myoclonus in a context of progressive ataxia ...

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Prolonged Prothrombin Time

What Is Prolonged Prothrombin Time? Prolonged prothrombin time (PT) is a laboratory blood test result showing that blood clots too slowly which makes the patient subject to abnormal bleeding. Q: What does the prothrombin time (PT) test measure? A: The ...

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