Minerals

Ataxia, Gait

What Is Gait Ataxia? Gait ataxia is a cerebellar (lower brain) disorder characterized by defective muscular coordination of skeletal muscles used for locomotion (walking). Q: What is defective muscle coordination for walking? A: The cerebellum does not initiate movements but ...

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Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)? Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a maladaptive behavioral disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and impulsivity, or both, that are developmentally (age) inappropriate. For these problems to be diagnosed as ...

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Autism and Learning Disabilities

What Is Autism and Learning Disabilities? Autism and learning disabilities constititute a non-progressive psychiatric syndrome appearing in childhood characterized by withdrawal from communication with others often accompanied by repetitive or primitive behaviors. Primary gastrointestinal pathology may play an important role ...

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Bladder Infection (Cystitis)

What Is A Bladder Infection? Bladder infection, or cystitis, is a urinary disorder characterized by pyuria (pus in urine) and dysuria (impaired urination). Cystitis is often simply called a UTI, although UTI (urinary tract infection) can affect any part of the ...

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Bone Alkaline Phosphatase (BALP), Elevated

What Is Elevated Bone Alkaline Phosphatase? Elevated bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) is a laboratory result that indicates an abnormal blood level of this bone enzyme. A bone alkaline phosphatase blood level is one of the most frequently used biochemical markers of ...

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Bone Fractures 

What Are Bone Fractures? Bone fractures, or broken bones, are breaks in skeletal bones that occur usually from trauma to the bone itself or by a sudden violent contraction of muscle attached to it. Q: Are there other causes of ...

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Bone Pain

What Is Bone Pain? Bone pain is pain or tenderness in bone tissue. Bone pain intensity and location depend on the causative disorder. Q: What are causative disorders of bone pain? A: Bone pain is a feature of various disorders ...

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Cachexia

What Is Cachexia? Cachexia is a state of ill health involving deteriorating body composition that is characterized by general malnutrition and loss of lean tissue such as muscle. Q: What are typical findings in cachexia? A: Arm muscle triceps (the ...

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Calcium Deficiency

What Is Calcium? Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, with 99% residing in teeth and bones where it constitutes 40% of skeletal bone weight along with 45% phosphorus. As a component of hard tissues, calcium fulfills a ...

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Cancer Of The Esophagus 

What Is Cancer Of The Esophagus? Cancer of the esophagus is a malignancy arising in the stratified squamous cell lining of any part of the esophagus and having a poor prognosis. This tumor first invades the deeper layers of the ...

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Cancer Of The Pharynx 

What Is Cancer Of The Pharynx? Cancer of the pharynx is a malignant growth of stratified squamous cells that line the pharynx, or throat. Q: What are stratified squamous cells that line the pharynx? A: Stratified squamous cells are thin, flat epithelial ...

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Cancer, Post-Cricoid

What Is Post-Cricoid Carcinoma? Post-cricoid carcinoma is a rare malignancy arising in the hypopharynx. Q: What is the hypopharynx? A: The hypopharynx is the lower portion of the pharynx that opens into the larynx. It is comprised of the postcricoid ...

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Cancer, Esophageal Small Cell

What Is Esophageal Small Cell Cancer (Carcinoma)? Esophageal small cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising in the esophagus with a poor prognosis. Q: Where does the cancer occur in the esophagus? A: Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere in ...

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Candida Albicans Infection

What Is Candida Albicans Infection? Candida albicans infection, called candidosis or candidiasis, is an opportunistic invasion of mucous membrane or skin by candida albicans, an endogenous yeast found in 40 to 80% of normal human beings. A former name for ...

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Cataracts

What Are Cataracts? Cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens in an affected eye characterized by blurred vision and progressive blindness due to loss of the len’s ability to focus light rays on the retina. Cataracts can occur ...

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