What Is Copper Deficiency?
Copper is an essential trace element that is required for a number of enzymes which are necessary for normal metabolic function.
In the body almost all the copper is present as a component of copper proteins which are produced and controlled by the liver.
Q: How does the liver control copper?
A: The liver maintains proper copper balance by binding free copper to proteins and by excreting excess copper as part of bile that is then emptied into the intestinal tract and excreted in stool.
Metabolic balance studies have demonstrated that daily copper losses are approximately 1.3 mg/day.1
Among its specific functions listed below, copper is essential for energy production, blood and nerve functions, blood components, immunity, and collagen tissue. The copper enzyme, lysyl oxidase, is involved in the cross-linking of collagen in forming the framework for depositing calcium and other minerals to build and repair bone.
Animal studies suggest that adequate copper levels during pregnancy are critical to development of higher brain function in the offspring.2
What Is Copper Deficiency In Celiac Disease and/or Gluten Sensitivity?
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- Williams DM. Copper deficiency in humans. Semin Hematol. 1983 Apr; 20(2):118-28.
- Fisgin T, Yarali N, Duru F, Usta B, Kara A. Hematologic manifestation of childhood celiac disease. Acta Haematol. 2004;111(4):211-4.