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BODY SYSTEMS AFFECTED

This category is an alphabetical listing of any and all health conditions that affect individual body systems.

Bone Tissue: definition

Called osseous tissue. Bone is composed of specialized connective tissue (collagen) made up of living bone cells (osteocytes) that are embedded in a hard matrix (framework) of calcified substance. Bone matrix contains collagen fibers and the minerals calcium phosphate and ...

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Brain Atrophy

What Is Brain Atrophy? Brain atrophy is a degenerative condition of the brain characterized by loss of brain tissue, causing the brain to shrink. Q: How does loss of brain tissue affect the body? A: Loss of brain tissue will ...

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Brain Blood Flow Abnormalities 

blood perfusion gluten celiac disease

What Are Brain Blood Flow Abnormalities? Brain blood flow abnormalities, or cerebral perfusion abnormalities, such as spasm of blood vessels causing inadequate blood flow to the brain, are characterized by impaired brain function and thinking. Q: What is cerebral perfusion? A: ...

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Bronchiectasis

What Is Bronchiectasis? Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary disorder characterized by chronic dilation of bronchi (main airways) and bronchioles (small airways) with chronic inflammation and swelling, increasing the risk of infection. In bronchiectasis, mucus produced to trap foreign substances, such as ...

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Bronchoalveolitis Leading to Bronchitis and Pneumonia

What Is Lymphocytic Bronchoalveolitis? Lymphocytic bronchoalveolitis is a pulmonary disorder characterized by lymphocytic airway inflammation of the bronchi (main passageways branching from the windpipe), bronchioles (small passageways), and alveoli (air sacs) at the end. The chronic, productive cough that develops ...

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Bruising, Easy (Ecchymosis)

What Is Easy Bruising? Ecchymosis, or easy bruising, is a feature of impaired secondary hemostasis (blood clotting) characterized by subcutaneous bleeding (under the skin) in response to light trauma. Q: What causes easy bruising? A: Easy bruising is the direct ...

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Cachexia

What Is Cachexia? Cachexia is a state of ill health involving deteriorating body composition that is characterized by general malnutrition and loss of lean tissue such as muscle. Q: What are typical findings in cachexia? A: Arm muscle triceps (the ...

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Cancer Of The Esophagus 

What Is Cancer Of The Esophagus? Cancer of the esophagus is a malignancy arising in the stratified squamous cell lining of any part of the esophagus and having a poor prognosis. This tumor first invades the deeper layers of the ...

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Cancer Of The Pharynx 

What Is Cancer Of The Pharynx? Cancer of the pharynx is a malignant growth of stratified squamous cells that line the pharynx, or throat. Q: What are stratified squamous cells that line the pharynx? A: Stratified squamous cells are thin, flat epithelial ...

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Cancer Predisposition In Children 

What Is Cancer Predisposition In Children? Cancer predisposition in children signifies a higher than normal risk of developing cancer. Cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in the body. Among the 12 major types of childhood cancers, leukemias (blood ...

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Cancer, Parathyroid

What Is Parathyroid Carcinoma? Parathyroid carcinoma is a slow growing rare malignancy involving overactive parathyroid glands and is characterized by profound hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium level), parathyroid hormone levels of more than 3 times upper normal limits, and palpable neck mass.1 ...

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Cancer, Post-Cricoid

What Is Post-Cricoid Carcinoma? Post-cricoid carcinoma is a rare malignancy arising in the hypopharynx. Q: What is the hypopharynx? A: The hypopharynx is the lower portion of the pharynx that opens into the larynx. It is comprised of the postcricoid ...

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Cancer, Esophageal Small Cell

What Is Esophageal Small Cell Cancer (Carcinoma)? Esophageal small cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising in the esophagus with a poor prognosis. Q: Where does the cancer occur in the esophagus? A: Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere in ...

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Candida Albicans Infection

What Is Candida Albicans Infection? Candida albicans infection, called candidosis or candidiasis, is an opportunistic invasion of mucous membrane or skin by candida albicans, an endogenous yeast found in 40 to 80% of normal human beings. A former name for ...

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Carbohydrate Malabsorption

What Is Carbohydrate Malabsorption? Carbohydrate malabsorption is a digestive disorder characterized by the inability to properly digest and absorb carbohydrates within the small intestine to supply needed energy to the body. Q: What carbohydrates should be normally digested and absorbed? A: In normal ...

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