Vitamin D

Laryngospasm

What Is Laryngospasm? Laryngospasm is an acute disorder of the larynx that is characterized by life-threatening spasms of the muscles of the larynx located in the throat. Laryngospasm is a rare feature of hypocalcemia (low blood calcium level) characterized by ...

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Obstetrical Complications

What Are Obstetrical Complications? Obstetrical complications are reproductive disorders during pregnancy, labor and delivery that endanger the mother and unborn infant. Complications may result from prolonged constipation, malnutriton, hormonal imbalance, infection, systemic disease such as diabetes, obesity, tumors of the uterus, ...

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Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica 

What Is Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica? Osteitis fibrosa cystica is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decalcification and softening of bones with bone cyst formation and bone tumors developing from effects of chronic vitamin D deficiency causing hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid adenoma ...

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Osteomalacia

What Is Osteomalacia? Osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disorder that causes abnormal skeletal changes characterized by generalized reduction in bone density (bone softening) in adults and pseudofractures (apparant on x-ray) with muscular weakness and bone tenderness. Bones have the normal amount of ...

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Osteomalacic Myopathy

osteomalacic myopathy in celiac disease

What Is Osteomalacic Myopathy? Osteomalacic myopathy is a major feature of osteomalacia that is characterized by painful muscle weakness involving the thighs and upper arms and hyperreflexia. Q: What is hyperreflexia? A: Hyperreflexia means the action of reflexes is increased. ...

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Osteopenia In Childhood 

What Is Osteopenia In Childhood? Osteopenia is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by diminished bone mass with the retention of normal cell appearance and high bone turnover. That is, bone production does not keep up with bone loss. Bones looks ...

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Osteoporosis

What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by diminished bone mass (density) with normal cell appearance but fragile bone strength that prediposes to broken bones, and with high bone turnover. This condition usually goes undetected until late ...

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PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) 

What Is PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)? Premenstrual syndrome is a menstrual disorder that occurs regularly during the last week of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and starts to subside a few days before menstruation begins and is absent the ...

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Primary Hyperparathyroidism

What Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism? Primary hyperparathyroidism is a parathyroid disorder characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone by one or more parathyroid glands for more than 6 months. In primary hyperparathyroidism, blood calcium levels are high while phosphorus levels are ...

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Psoriasis

 What Is Psoriasis? Psoriasis is a chronic, autommune relapsing skin disorder characterized by scaling, erythema (redness), and less commonly, pustulation.1  The body surface area affected and the degree to which psoriasis is a problem varies considerably among patients and over time.2 Often ...

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Psoriatic Arthritis

What Is Psoriatic Arthritis? Psoriatic arthritis is a joint manifestation of psoriasis, a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by asymmetric involvement in one or more joints, especially affecting the distal phalangeal joints of fingers and toes (joints nearest nails). In some ...

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Rickets

What Is Rickets? Rickets is a disorder of cartilage cell growth and enlargement of epiphyseal growth plates in young children that is characterized by inadequate mineralization of developing cartilage and newly formed bone. The epiphyseal growth plate is located at the ends ...

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Secondary Amenorrhea

What Is Secondary Amenorrhea? Secondary amenorrhea is a menstrual disorder characterized by absence of menstruation for more than 3 months in females who had previously menstruated. Menstruation is the shedding of the endometrium (inner lining) of the uterus that occurs two weeks ...

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Tetany

What Is Tetany? Tetany is a painful feature of low blood calcium or low blood magnesium causing hyperexcitability of all nerves which in turn stimulates involuntary sudden, intermittent and repetitious tonic spasms of muscles. Tonic spasms are steady rather than jerky. Causes include ...

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Vitamin D Deficiency

What Is Vitamin D? Vitamin D is the principle regulator of calcium homeostasis (balance) in the body.  This “vitamin” is really a prohormone, meaning it acts like a hormone but is not. Vitamin D does, however, contain cholesterol in its molecular ...

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