Home / Tag Archives: Glossary (page 3)

Tag Archives: Glossary

Esophagus: definition

A hollow muscular tube located in the middle of the chest that connects the mouth with the stomach and performs swallowing through highly coordinated muscle actions called peristslsis that quickly move food into the stomach at 2-3 cm per second.

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Bacteria: definition

Germs that may cause infection.

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Analgesic: definition

Medicine that relieves pain.

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Insulin: definition

Hormone secreted by beta cells located on the surface of the pancreas in response to elevations in blood glucose (sugar) levels, as for example, after eating a meal, for the purpose of bringing the level back to normal.

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Testicle (Teste): definition

In males, one of two endocrine glands located in the scrotum that makes the hormones testosterone and inhibin which it releases in response to luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the pituitary gland for the purpose of developing male sexual characteristics and producing sperm needed ...

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Ovary: definition

In females, one of two endocrine glands located in the lower abdomen that makes the hormone estrogen and releases it in response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the pituitary gland for the purpose of developing female sexual characteristics and producing eggs needed ...

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Pineal Gland: definition

An endocrine gland located in the brain that makes hormones for the purpose of controlling the sleep-wake cycle.

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Thymus Gland: definition

An endocrine gland located under the breastbone in the chest that produces T-lymphocytes for the purpose of controlling immune function.

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Parathyroid Glands: definition

Four small endocrine glands located in the neck close to the thyroid gland that make parathyroid hormone (parathormone) and release it in response to parathyroid stimulating hormone for the purpose of regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism.

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Adrenal Gland: definition

One of two glands each located on top of a kidney that makes adrenocortical hormones and releases them as required into the bloodstream.  The three adrenal hormones are glucocorticoids (cortisol) to control the stress response, mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) to control the retention and excretion ...

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Hypothalamus: definition

The part of the brain that monitors hormone levels of all the exocrine glands and controls their activity through action on the pituitary gland to secrete whatever stimulating hormone is needed. The exocrine glands are: pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pancreas, ...

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Pituitary Gland: definition

An exocrine gland located in the brain that regulates the activity of other glands by releasing 10 different stimulating hormones into the bloodstream. The pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus.

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Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): definition

A hormone produced by the pituitary gland located in the brain that causes the thyroid gland to release thyroxine hormone into the bloodstream.

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Thyroid Gland: definition

An endocrine gland located in the neck that makes thyroid hormone and releases it in response to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for the purpose of controlling metabolism.

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Vein: definition

A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart.

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