Hypoprothrombinemia is a deficiency of prothrombin (clotting factor II) in the blood that is characterized by impaired hemostasis in response to trauma or a laceration.
Q: What is hemostasis and how is it altered by a deficiency of prothrombin?
A: Hemostasis encompasses the tightly regulated processes of blood clotting, platelet activation, and blood vessel repair.1
Prothrombin is a protein clotting factor present in blood that is involved in the first part of hemostasis, which is blood clotting or coagulation. Vitamin K is required for prothrombin production.
When a laceration or wound is sustained, prothrombin is converted to the enzyme thrombin. Thrombin in turn acts on fibrinogen to convert it to fibrin which then forms the framework of a clot to stop bleeding. Deficiency of prothrombin prevents this series of events and bleeding is not properly stopped.
After the clotting process of hemostasis would come the second part, platelet activation. Eventually, coagulation and platelet activation are switched off by blood-borne inhibitors.
What Is Hypoprothrombinemia In Celiac Disease and/or Gluten Sensitivity?
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Versteeg HH, Heemskerk JWM, Levi M, Reitsma PH. New Fundamentals in Hemostasis. Physiological Reviews Published 1 January 2013Vol. 93no. 327-358DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00016.2011 ↩