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System – Blood

This category comprises disorders of blood including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, coagulation factors, blood proteins, enzymes, antibodies, hormones, and nutritional components including minerals, vitamins, and lipids.

Homocysteine, Elevated Blood Level (Hyperhomocysteinemia)

What Is Elevated Homocysteine? Elevated homocysteine in blood, called hyperhomocysteinemia, indicates an abnormal blood level of this transient amino acid. Q: How does the level of homocysteine become abnormal? A: In metabolism, homocysteine is briefly formed in the breakdown of ...

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Hyperprolactinemia (Excess Prolactin Hormone)

What Is Hyperprolactinemia? Hyperprolactinemia is an excess secretion of prolactin hormone causing an elevated blood level that is characterized by its effects on reproduction: in females causing  amenorrhea and in males causing reduced sexual potency. Q: What is prolactin? A: ...

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Hypocalcemia (Low Blood Calcium)

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What Is Hypocalcemia? Hypocalcemia, or low plasma calcium, means the level of calcium in blood is too low to meet metabolic needs of the body for calcium. Low blood calcium is characterized by bone and tooth demineralization (loss of calcium ...

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Hypocupremia (Low Blood Copper Level)

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What Is Hypocupremia? Hypocupremia, or low plasma copper, means the level of copper is too low to meet metabolic needs of the body for copper and is characterized by these many features: Impaired energy production causing weakness. Impaired ability as ...

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Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

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What Is Hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia means the level of glucose within cells is too low to meet metabolic needs of the body for this essential sugar. Q: What are the metabolic needs for glucose? A: Glucose is the most important simple ...

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Hypokalemia (Low Potassium Blood Level)

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What Is Hypokalemia? Hypokalemia means the level of potassium in the bloodstream is too low to meet metabolic needs of the body for this mineral and is characterized by metabolic acidosis, altered nerve conduction and muscle contraction. Rapid potassium loss can ...

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Hypomagnesemia (Low Blood Level of Magnesium)

What Is Hypomagnesemia? Hypomagnesemia means the level of magnesium in the bloodstream is too low to meet metabolic needs of the body for this mineral. Q: What are the metabolic needs of the body for magnesium? A: The metabolic needs ...

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Hypophosphatemia (Low Phosphate Blood Level)

What Is Hypophosphatemia? Hypophosphatemia means the level of phosphates in the bloodstream is too low to meet metabolic needs of the body for this mineral. Q: How important is phosphorus in metabolism? A: Phosphorus is crucial to  life, being present ...

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Hypoprothrombinemia (Low Prothrombin Level)

What Is Hypoprothrombinemia? Hypoprothrombinemia is a deficiency of prothrombin (clotting factor II) in the blood that is characterized by impaired hemostasis in response to trauma or a laceration. Q: What is hemostasis and how is it altered by a deficiency of prothrombin? A: Hemostasis ...

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Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

What Is Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura? Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), formerly called idiopathic, is an immune mediated bleeding disorder characterized by destruction of circulating platelets (thrombocytes) by autoantibodies in the presence of normal bone marrow and without other conditions that cause ...

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Iron Deficiency

What Is Iron? Iron is an essential mineral that is required for normal body function. Almost two-thirds of iron in the body is found in hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to tissues. Smaller amounts of ...

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Liver Enzymes, Elevated (Hypertransaminasemia)

What Are Elevated Liver Enzymes? Hypertransaminasemia is a chronic condition of elevated blood liver transaminase enzymes, commonly called “liver enzymes,” that signifies hepatocellular (liver) injury. Q: What are serum transaminases? A: Transaminases are the liver enzymes ALT and AST. ALT is the ...

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Low Plasma Proteins

What Are Low Plasma Proteins? Low plasma proteins found in blood indicates an abnormal blood level. Plasma proteins are any of the proteins that constitute about 6% to 7% of the blood plasma in the body. They include albumin, fibrinogen, ...

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Macroamylasemia

What Is Macroamylasemia? Macroamylasemia is an acquired enzyme disorder that causes elevated levels of the enzyme amylase (hyperamylasaemia) in the bloodstream. It is characterized by altered amylase molecules that have become abnormally bound with plasma proteins in the bloodstream, commonly ...

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Macrocytosis

What Is Macrocytosis? Macrocytosis is a blood cell disorder characterized by altered blood cell formation that results in abnormally large erythrocytes (red blood cells) circulating in the bloodstream. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), which is a measure of the size of ...

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