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Brain Disorders

This category comprises disorders of the brain that can involve any of its five parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, all of which are enclosed within and protected by the skull.

The brain is composed of millions of microscopic neurons that connect to other neurons, sending messages and making pathways between neurons that provide for thinking, memory, judgment, reasoning, social interaction and emotion.

Vasculitis, Cerebral (Cause of Stroke, TIA, and Seizure)

What Is Cerebral Vasculitis? Cerebral vasculitis, also called vasculitis of the central nervous system (CNS), is an autoimune attack against elastin fibers in the walls of arteries that bring blood to the head. Early recogniton may reduce poor outcomes.1 Cerebral ...

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Tremors

What Are Tremors? Tremors are repetitive patterns of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation originating from disorder in the basal ganglia of the brain. See image of hand tremor (to left) courtesy of Antonio Piedade. Rythmic shaking may affect various parts of ...

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Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)? Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a maladaptive behavioral disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and impulsivity, or both, that are developmentally (age) inappropriate. For these problems to be diagnosed as ...

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Schizophrenia

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What Is Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms and inappropriate and bizarre behavior. Schizophrenia involves dysfunction in any of these areas: Cognition which are thinking skills that include intellect, language, mathematical ability, memory, perception, reasoning, judgment, ...

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Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

What Is Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy? Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a progressive demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (brain) caused by JC virus that leads to rapid death. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with ...

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Progressive Myoclonic Ataxia 

What Is Progressive Myoclonic Ataxia? Progressive myoclonic ataxia is a movement disorder characterized by defective muscular coordination of a muscle group with its origin in the brain. The pathology is in the cerebellum.1 Myoclonus in a context of progressive ataxia ...

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Congenital Anomalies 

What Are Congenital Anomalies? Congenital anomalies are malformations present in the infant at birth. Q: What anomalies are present at birth? A: Some anomalies are inherited while others are caused by a harmful environmental factor during pregnancy such as diet, ...

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PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) 

What Is PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)? Premenstrual syndrome is a menstrual disorder that occurs regularly during the last week of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and starts to subside a few days before menstruation begins and is absent the ...

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Irritability

What Is Irritability? Irritability is a mental state characterized by negativity and excessive response to annoyance. Irritability can be a feature of many diseases, malnutrition, and side effects of certain prescribed medications and over the counter drugs. What Is Irritability In Celiac Disease ...

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Occipital Lobe Epilepsy With Cerebral Calcifications

What Is Occipital Lobe Epilepsy With Cerebral Calcifications? Occipital lobe epilepsy with cerebral calcifications is a seizure disorder that develops from calcium deposits in the brain. This condition is characterized by repetitive abnormal electrical discharges within the brain that may ...

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Migraine (Headache)

What Is Migraine? Migraine is a neurologic disorder characterized by reduced cerebral blood flow that causes a severe headache. The pain is usually on one side of the head, pulsates, and is aggravated by bodily exertion that increases blood pressure. ...

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Epilepsy (Convulsions)

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What Is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a dysfunctional disorder of the brain characterized by recurring seizures also called convulsions. Q: What happens in a seizure? A: During a seizure  abnormal electrical discharges occur within the brain. Not all seizures have the same intensity ...

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Cortical Calcifying Angiomatosis

What Is Cortical Calcifying Angiomatosis? Cortical calcifying angiomatosis is a cortical vascular (brain blood vessel) abnormality that is characterized by calcification of blood vessels and is usually present in the parietal or occipital cortical and subcortical regions of the brain.1 ...

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Brain Blood Flow Abnormalities 

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What Are Brain Blood Flow Abnormalities? Brain blood flow abnormalities, or cerebral perfusion abnormalities, such as spasm of blood vessels causing inadequate blood flow to the brain, are characterized by impaired brain function and thinking. Q: What is cerebral perfusion? A: ...

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Brain Atrophy

What Is Brain Atrophy? Brain atrophy is a degenerative condition of the brain characterized by loss of brain tissue, causing the brain to shrink. Q: How does loss of brain tissue affect the body? A: Loss of brain tissue will ...

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