Vitamin A

Bitot’s Spots 

What Are Bitot’s Spots? Bitot’s spots are superficial foamy patches that develop on the exposed bulbar conjunctiva (white of the eye) as a manifestaion of advanced vitamin A deficiency. This painless eye disorder is reversible only with vitamin A therapy. ...

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Bladder Infection (Cystitis)

What Is A Bladder Infection? Bladder infection, or cystitis, is a urinary disorder characterized by pyuria (pus in urine) and dysuria (impaired urination). Cystitis is often simply called a UTI, although UTI (urinary tract infection) can affect any part of the ...

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Blepharitis, Non-Infectious (Swollen Eyelids)

What Is Non-Infectious Blepharitis? Non-infectious blepharitis is an inflammatory condition of the eyelids that is NOT caused by an invading organism but rather nutritional deficiencies. It is characterized by non-ulcerative inflammation of the hair follicles and lacrimal glands along the eyelid edges. Q: ...

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Blurred Vision, Unexplained

What Is Unexplained Blurred Vision? Unexplained blurred vision is unclear or distorted vision that is not caused by allergy, poor refraction (eye test), medication side effects, metabolic disorders, or defects in any part of the eyeball, optic nerve, or in ...

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Cancer Of The Esophagus 

What Is Cancer Of The Esophagus? Cancer of the esophagus is a malignancy arising in the stratified squamous cell lining of any part of the esophagus and having a poor prognosis. This tumor first invades the deeper layers of the ...

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Cancer Of The Pharynx 

What Is Cancer Of The Pharynx? Cancer of the pharynx is a malignant growth of stratified squamous cells that line the pharynx, or throat. Q: What are stratified squamous cells that line the pharynx? A: Stratified squamous cells are thin, flat epithelial ...

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Cancer Predisposition In Children 

What Is Cancer Predisposition In Children? Cancer predisposition in children signifies a higher than normal risk of developing cancer. Cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in the body. Among the 12 major types of childhood cancers, leukemias (blood ...

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Cancer, Post-Cricoid

What Is Post-Cricoid Carcinoma? Post-cricoid carcinoma is a rare malignancy arising in the hypopharynx. Q: What is the hypopharynx? A: The hypopharynx is the lower portion of the pharynx that opens into the larynx. It is comprised of the postcricoid ...

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Candida Albicans Infection

What Is Candida Albicans Infection? Candida albicans infection, called candidosis or candidiasis, is an opportunistic invasion of mucous membrane or skin by candida albicans, an endogenous yeast found in 40 to 80% of normal human beings. A former name for ...

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Cataracts

What Are Cataracts? Cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens in an affected eye characterized by blurred vision and progressive blindness due to loss of the len’s ability to focus light rays on the retina. Cataracts can occur ...

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Celiac Disease, Refractory

What Is Refractory Celiac Disease? Refractory celiac disease, formerly called refractory sprue, is a severe complication characterized by persistence of symptoms and intestinal inflammation despite gluten free diet after 12 months.1 Refractory celiac disease appears in two forms, ulcerative jejunitis (RCD ...

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Colitis, Lymphocytic

What Is Lymphocytic Colitis? Lymphocytic colitis is a microscopic inflammation of the large intestinal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes (IELs)  that is characterized by non-bloody secretory diarrhea. Secretory diarrhea describes bowel movements that consist of a large volume of liquid ...

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Colitis, Ulcerative

What Is Ulcerative Colitis? Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disorder of the colon characterized by continuous inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa usually with small ulcers, extending from the rectum and typically involving the distal colon, rectum, and anus and ...

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Colitis, Collagenous

What Is Collagenous Colitis? Collagenous colitis is a disease of the large intestine (colon) that is characterized by microscopic inflammation of the surface mucosal lining and an abnormally thickened collagen band of tissue that develops wthin the lining of the colon. ...

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Cutis Laxa, Acquired

What Is Acquired Cutis Laxa? Acquired cutis laxa is an uncommon skin disorder characterized by abnormal reduction and degeneration of elastic fibers of the skin that can appear simply as thick, saggy skin with loose folds to severe involvement showing ...

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