Congenital Disorders

This category comprises congenital disorders that may be inherited or caused by malnutrition or disease. These disorders are present at birth or develop during the first 28 days after birth (neonatal period). They include bodily malformations such as cleft lip, organ malfunctions such as blindness, infectious disease such as syphilis, and chromosomal abberations such as Turner syndrome.

Congenital Anomalies 

What Are Congenital Anomalies? Congenital anomalies are malformations present in the infant at birth. Q: What anomalies are present at birth? A: Some anomalies are inherited while others are caused by a harmful environmental factor during pregnancy such as diet, ...

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Cystic Fibrosis 

What Is Cystic Fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease of the exocrine glands which causes the body to produce abnormally thick and sticky mucus and results in progressive damage to the respiratory system and digestive problems. Severity of disease depends ...

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Down Syndrome

What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome is a congenital disorder (present at birth) characterized by consequence of having an extra chromosome 21 or 22.  Down syndrome is typically caused by what is called nondisjunction. Q: What is nondisjunction? A: Nondisjunction ...

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Intrauterine Growth Retardation (Failure to Grow Normally Before Birth)

intrauterine growth retardation gluten free

What Is Intrauterine Growth Retardation? Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a fetal development abnormality characterized by failure to grow normally for gestational period. Specifically, it means the developing baby weighs less than 90% of other babies at the same age. Intrauterine growth ...

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Spina Bifida 

What Is Spina Bifida? Spina bifida is a congenital defect of neural tube closure and among the commonest and most severe disorders of the fetus and newborn.1 Spina bifida is a defect in the walls of the spinal canal in ...

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Turner’s Syndrome 

What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality in females characterized by failure of the ovaries to respond to pituitary hormone stimulation as a consequence of having complete or partial absence of the two sex (X) chromosomes. ...

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