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System – Integumentary (body surfaces)

This category comprises disorders of the integumentary system that cause damage to skin, nails and hair and/or impaired function.

Alopecia Areata

What Is Alopecia Areata? Alopecia areata is an autoimmune attack on hair follicles characterized by sudden hair loss involving scalp or beard, although any hairy area may be affected. Areas of hair loss have a patchy pattern with sharply defined ...

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Alopecia, Diffuse (Balding Hair Loss)

What Is Diffuse Alopecia? Diffuse alopecia is characterized by abnormal hair loss or baldness. Hair loss usually develops gradually and may be patchy or all over (diffuse). The average scalp contains about 100,000 hairs. Roughly 100 hairs are shed from the head ...

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Cutaneous Vasculitis 

What Is Cutaneous Vasculitis? Cutaneous vasculitis is a vascular disease of small blood vessels serving the skin that is characterized by segmental (spotty) inflammation of affected vessel walls resulting in their necrosis (destruction). Scarring is seen in the affected skin ...

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Cutis Laxa, Acquired

What Is Acquired Cutis Laxa? Acquired cutis laxa is an uncommon skin disorder characterized by abnormal reduction and degeneration of elastic fibers of the skin that can appear simply as thick, saggy skin with loose folds to severe involvement showing ...

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis In Childhood

What Is Dermatitis Herpetiformis In Childhood? Dermatitis herpetiformis in childhood is an inflammatory skin manifestation of celiac disease in which immunoglobulin A (IgA) autoantibodies target components of the skin, leading to blister formation caused by ingestion of gluten in the diet.   Dermatitis ...

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis or Duhring’s Disease

What Is Dermatitis Herpetiformis? Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune extremely itchy, painful bullous skin rash (blistering eruptions) arising from the underlying dermis layer of skin as a consequence of gluten sensitivity. Dermatitis herpetiformis is characterized by multiple intensely itchy, ...

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Dermatomyositis

What Is Dermatomyositis? Dermatomyositis is a rare autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue that is characterized by inflammatory and debilitating degenerative changes in the muscles and in the skin.  Dermatomyositis results in symmetric, proximal muscle weakness of limbs (upper arms and ...

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Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

What Is Type I Diabetes Mellitus? Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also termed type 1A, is an inherited autoimmune disorder in which anti-islet autoantibodies destroy the islet cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin hormone. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was formerly ...

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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

What Is Eczema? Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic recurring inflammatory skin disorder characterized by itching, eczematous plaques and a defective epidermal barrier (surface layer of skin cells) that fails to hold moisture, with affected areas becoming dry then inflamed. ...

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Edema

What Is Edema? Edema is an abnormal swollen condition of the skin characterized by excess extracellular fluid volume, meaning there is an increase of the fluid that normally surrounds cells. Edema may be hardly noticeable or it can become extensive. ...

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Erythema Elevatum Diutinum (EED)

What Is Erythema Elevatum Diutinum? Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare leucocytoclastic vasculitis thought to be caused by an immune response that is characterized by inflammation, a rash, and scarring of small blood vessels of the skin. A characteristic poorly defined ...

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Erythema Nodosum 

What Is Erythema Nodosum? Erythema nodosum is an inflammatory disorder involving the deep dermis layer of skin and subcutaneous fat septa that underlies the skin. It is characterized by eruptions of recurrent or persistent multiple painful, red nodules under the skin that ...

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Follicular Hyperkeratosis (goose flesh or corkscrew hair)

What Is Follicular Hyperkeratosis? Follicular hyperkeratosis is an abnormal skin condition characterized by disordered overgrowth of the horny layer of the epidermis with horny plugs filling the openings of hair follicles. The plugs look like bumps in hair follicles. Follicular ...

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Hair, Fine With Rough Texture

What Is Fine Hair With Rough Texture? Fine hair (lower diameter across the width) with rough texture is an abnormal hair shaft feature altered from the normal diameter and smooth quality of hair. Q: What is the normal diameter and smooth quality of ...

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Hangnail

What Is Hangnail? Hangnail is a broken strip of epidermis (piece of skin) at root or lateral (side) edge of fingernail or toenail that causes sharp pain. A hangnail develops because the skin around the nail is unhealthy due to ...

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