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Brain Disorders

This category comprises disorders of the brain that can involve any of its five parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, all of which are enclosed within and protected by the skull.

The brain is composed of millions of microscopic neurons that connect to other neurons, sending messages and making pathways between neurons that provide for thinking, memory, judgment, reasoning, social interaction and emotion.

Anorexia or Loss of Appetite

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What Is Anorexia? Anorexia or loss of appetite is a reduced desire to eat which can cause unintentional weight loss. Anorexia is a feature of many disorders caused by malutrition such as celiac disease and aging or gastrointestinal problems such ...

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Anxiety, Chronic

What Is Anxiety? Anxiety or worry is a distressing emotional state of mind or mood that is characterized by a vague uneasiness, unpleasant feelings of apprehension or anticipation of danger and by interference with normal functioning, ranging from mild qualms ...

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Apathy

Apathy celiac disease symptom

What Is Apathy? Apathy is an abnormal emotional state that is characterized by indifference to things which others find interesting, moving or exciting, and diminished motivation to perform regular daily activities. The neural mechanisms of apathy are postulated to involve ...

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Ataxia, Gait

What Is Gait Ataxia? Gait ataxia is a cerebellar (lower brain) disorder characterized by defective muscular coordination of skeletal muscles used for locomotion (walking). Q: What is defective muscle coordination for walking? A: The cerebellum does not initiate movements but ...

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Ataxia, Gluten

What Is Gluten Ataxia? Gluten ataxia is a degeneration of the cerebellum (lower brain) caused by an immune reaction to gluten that is characterized by positive anti-gliadin antibodies, motor abnormalities including upper or lower limb ataxia, gait ataxia, and dysarthria ...

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Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)? Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a maladaptive behavioral disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and impulsivity, or both, that are developmentally (age) inappropriate. For these problems to be diagnosed as ...

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Autism and Learning Disabilities

What Is Autism and Learning Disabilities? Autism and learning disabilities constititute a non-progressive psychiatric syndrome appearing in childhood characterized by withdrawal from communication with others often accompanied by repetitive or primitive behaviors. Primary gastrointestinal pathology may play an important role ...

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Brain Atrophy

What Is Brain Atrophy? Brain atrophy is a degenerative condition of the brain characterized by loss of brain tissue, causing the brain to shrink. Q: How does loss of brain tissue affect the body? A: Loss of brain tissue will ...

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Brain Blood Flow Abnormalities 

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What Are Brain Blood Flow Abnormalities? Brain blood flow abnormalities, or cerebral perfusion abnormalities, such as spasm of blood vessels causing inadequate blood flow to the brain, are characterized by impaired brain function and thinking. Q: What is cerebral perfusion? A: ...

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Chorea

What Is Chorea? Chorea is a movement disorder characterized by brief, jerky, purposeless or writhing involuntary movements of the distal limbs, head, and face that may occur during voluntary movement or at rest. Chorea has a large number of causes, ...

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Chronic Fatigue / Lassitude / Tiredness

What Is Chronic Fatigue? Chronic fatigue or lassitude is a state of weariness not relieved by rest and the inability to do normal physical or mental work. Q: What are causes of chronic fatigue? A: Chronic fatigue can be a ...

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 

What Is Chronic Syndrome Fatigue? Chronic fatigue syndrome is a debilitating illness characterized by persistent or relapsing overwhelming and incapacitating fatigue not relieved by rest, having a definite onset and often accompanied by numerous symptoms involving various body systems. This ...

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Congenital Anomalies 

What Are Congenital Anomalies? Congenital anomalies are malformations present in the infant at birth. Q: What anomalies are present at birth? A: Some anomalies are inherited while others are caused by a harmful environmental factor during pregnancy such as diet, ...

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Cortical Calcifying Angiomatosis

What Is Cortical Calcifying Angiomatosis? Cortical calcifying angiomatosis is a cortical vascular (brain blood vessel) abnormality that is characterized by calcification of blood vessels and is usually present in the parietal or occipital cortical and subcortical regions of the brain.1 ...

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Dementia

What Is Dementia? Dementia is the term used to describe a group of symptoms that show significant deterioration of an individual’s intellectual and social abilities. The deterioration in intellectual function is progressive and is characterized by memory and cognitive impairment involving deficits ...

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