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Antibody Disorders

This category comprises disorders that are caused by an immune mechanism producing antibodies.

Antibodies are specialized proteins of the immune system called immunoglobulins. Each antibody consists of 4 polypeptides, comprised of about 100 amino acids, forming a Y shaped molecule. The site on the antibody that binds with an antigen is at the tips of the Y. Each antibody is unique and defends the body against the one specific antigen it recognizes.
Antibodies that target the body’s own tissue are called autoantibodies. Auto means “self.”

Allergic Rhinitis

What Is Allergic Rhinitis? Allergic rhinitis is an immune disorder characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa by an IgE antibody reaction to an allergen. An allergen is something that triggers an allergic immune response. Q: What is the immune ...

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Anti-Endomysium Antibodies (EMA) Present In Blood

What Are Anti-Endomysium Antibodies? Anti-endomysium antibodies (EmA) are connective tissue autoantibodies produced in persons who have inherited the genes for celiac disease, an autoimmune disease, and are reacting to gluten in their diet. Autoantibodies are abnormal in that they attack ...

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Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies (tTG) Present In Blood

What Are Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies? Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) are connective tissue autoantibodies and can be detected in blood samples from affected persons who are reacting to gluten in the diet. Autoantibodies are abnormal because they attack the body’s own ...

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Antiphospholipid Syndrome

What Is Antiphospholipid Syndrome? Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease and a blood clotting disorder characterized by these clinical and laboratory criteria: Clinical criteria – recurrent vascular thrombosis (clots in veins/arteries) from hypercoagulability (abnormal excessive clotting) and/or recurrent complications of ...

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Asthma

What Is Asthma? Asthma is a chronic immune respiratory condition characterized by narrowing and inflammation of the lung airways (large bronchi, bronchial tubes and small bronchioles) in response to an allergen as the trigger or stimulus. As such, asthma occurs ...

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Autoimmune Disorders In Celiac Disease

What Are Autoimmune Disorders? Autoimmune disorders refer to those conditions that involve an abnormal immune attack on the body’s own tissues perpetuated by the production of autoantibodies directed against the body, or “self.” Auto means self. Q: Why does the ...

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Autoimmune Disorders In Dermatitis Herpetiformis

What Are Autoimmune Disorders? Autoimmune disorders refer to those conditions that involve an abnormal attack on the body’s own tissues perpetuated by the production of autoantibodies directed against self. Q: What happens when autoantibodies attack the body’s own tissues? A: ...

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Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes 

What Are Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes? Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) are rare clusterings of two or more endocrine and non-endocrine autoimmune disorders in the same affected person. Polyglandular is somewhat of a misnomer since many of the manifestations of the diseases ...

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Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood or Linear IgA Dermatosis

What Is Chronic Bullous Dermatosis Of Childhood? Chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood, also termed linear IgA dermatosis, is the most common acquired autoimmune blistering disorder of childhood and is characterized by itchy, urticated papules and plaques as well as polycyclic lesions (merged ...

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Common Variable Immunodeficiency 

What Is Common Variable Immunodeficiency? Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary antibody deficiency disease characterized by the onset of recurrent bacterial infections resulting from markedly decreased immunoglobulin antibody production and antibody levels. Q: What causes common variable immunodeficiency? A: Common variable ...

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis In Childhood

What Is Dermatitis Herpetiformis In Childhood? Dermatitis herpetiformis in childhood is an inflammatory skin manifestation of celiac disease in which immunoglobulin A (IgA) autoantibodies target components of the skin, leading to blister formation caused by ingestion of gluten in the diet.   Dermatitis ...

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Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

What Is Type I Diabetes Mellitus? Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also termed type 1A, is an inherited autoimmune disorder in which anti-islet autoantibodies destroy the islet cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin hormone. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was formerly ...

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Food Allergy – IgE and Non IgE

What Is Food Allergy? Food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food proteins that may damage the small intestinal  lining and produce malabsorption of food. The reaction is usually delayed which makes it difficult to identify the offending food that ...

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Hair, Fine With Rough Texture

What Is Fine Hair With Rough Texture? Fine hair (lower diameter across the width) with rough texture is an abnormal hair shaft feature altered from the normal diameter and smooth quality of hair. Q: What is the normal diameter and smooth quality of ...

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IgA Deficiency

What Is IgA Deficiency? IgA deficiency (IgAD) is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by lack of immunoglobulin A type antibody production, called IgA antibody, with no detectable levels in blood or secretions. Q: What is an IgA antibody? A: IgA is ...

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