Glossary


 

These definitions are intended to help you understand medical terminology as they relate to gluten sensitivity and celiac disease. 

A

Abdominal distention - enlarged abdomen, a classic sign of celiac disease.

Abdominal pain – achy, tense sensation in the upper abdomen that increases after eating and varies in location, intensity and sharpness, a classic symptom of celiac disease.

Acidosis – an increase in blood acidity that is due to accumulation of acids or loss of bicarbonate, owing to diet (low fruits, vegetables, high flour products), inflammation and dehydration (diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, poor fluid intake) in celiac disease. Symptoms are headache, sleepiness, muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and increased heart rate.

Acute - sudden onset of signs and symptoms.

Addison's Disease - adrenal gland failure.

Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine - a malignant tumor originating in glandular tissue.

Allele -  one of the variant forms of a gene at a particular location on a chromosome. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type. In an individual, one form of the allele (the dominant one) may be expressed more than another form (the recessive one).

Allergen - a substance that provokes an immune response known as an allergy involving immunoglobulin E antibodies.  Examples are pollen, insect stings, pet dander/urine, dust mites and food.

Allergic rhinitis - inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.

Allergy – a hypersensitivity response of the immune system to allergens.

Alopecia areata - an autoimmune destruction of hair follicles causing sharply defined areas of hair loss.

Alopecia, diffuse -  balding, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease itself.

Amenorrhea - absence of menstrual bleeding, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease itself.

Amino acids – small molecules called the "building blocks" of proteins. There are 20 different kinds that link together in various long chains to form proteins. Eight are essential, meaning they must be part of the diet because the body cannot make them.

Anemia -  low hemoglobin content of red blood cells or low number of red blood cells, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease itself.

Anemia, folic acid deficiency – a megaloblastic anemia, is characterized by defective DNA synthesis of red blood cells, causing large red blood cells in decreased numbers. It is a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Anemia, latent in enzymopathies of small intestine - anemia associated with lack of digestive enzymes produced by intestinal villi.

Anemia, refractory – anemia unresponsive to iron supplementation therapy, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency – a megaloblastic anemia, is characterized by defective DNA synthesis of red blood cells, causing large red blood cells in decreased numbers. It is a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Angina pectoris - oppressive pain or pressure beneath the sternum that is due to interference with the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle, precipitated by exertion and relieved by rest.

Anorexia - loss of appetite or picky appetite, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease itself.

Antibody – a protein of the immune system called immunoglobulin. Each antibody consists of 4 polypeptides, comprised of about 100 amino acids, forming a Y shaped molecule. The site on the antibody that binds with an antigen is at the tips of the Y. Each antibody is unique and defends the body against the one specific antigen it recognizes. Types of antibodies involved in celiac disease include:

Immunoglobulin A – this type is the main antibody in intestinal and respiratory mucin and saliva  for the purpose of preventing invading organisms from entering the body.

Immunoglobulin G – this type is the main antibody in blood for toxins and organisms.

Antigen – a protein or polysaccharide molecule that provokes the immune system to produce antibodies.

Anti-endomysium antibody (EMA) - connective tissue auto-antibodies that are highly sensitive and specific to celiac disease, making their abnormal presence in the blood useful for identifying celiac disease. A negative test result does not rule out the possibility of celiac disease. Patients with IgA deficiency will test negative for IgA-EMA.

Anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) - antibodies produced against grain peptides, making their abnormal presence in the blood useful for identifying celiac disease in combination with EMA or tTG antibody assay. Importantly, their presence is valuable for detecting gluten sensitivity reactions resulting from gliadin leaking into the blood secondary to increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut), whether caused by, or separate from, celiac disease.

Anti-phospholipid syndrome – autoimmune disease characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or complications of pregnancy and laboratory criteria (anticardiolipin and/or lupus anti-coagulant antibodies).

Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody - connective tissue autoantibodies; tissue transglutaminase is the autoantigen in endomysium. Their abnormal presence in the blood is useful for identifying celiac disease.  A negative test result does not rule out the possibility of celiac disease. Patients with IgA deficiency will test negative for IgA-tTG.

Anxiety - distressing emotional state characterized by a vague uneasiness or unpleasant feeling of apprehension and dysfunction, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Apathy - abnormal emotional state characterized by indifference to things which others find interesting, moving or exciting, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Aphthous ulcers - chronic small, painful purpuric, papular, or erosive lesions that are often surrounded by red margins on soft mouth tissue.

Apoptosis - programmed cell death, the body's normal method of disposing of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells.

Appetite, increased - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Arachidonic acid (AA) - an essential, unsaturated, omega -6 fatty acid needed to synthesize regulatory molecules such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes.

Arteries - strong, flexible blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the body.

Arthritis, enteropathic - a form of arthritis associated with abnormal bowel permeability in celiac disease characterized by peripheral joint disease.

Arthritis, psoriatic – joint manifestation of psoriasis.

Arthritis, recurrent monoarthritis – peripheral arthritis involving one joint.

Arrhythmia - irregular heart beat, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Asymptomatic - producing or showing no symptoms.

Ataxia - failure of muscle coordination resulting in jerkiness and instability. . Atherosclerosis - patchy thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of blood vessels which can reduce or obstruct blood flow, associated with celiac disease. .

Atrophy - decrease in the size and function of a cell, tissue, organ or part.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Atypical - not characteristic.

Autoimmune disease – damage resulting from the body's immune system wrongly attacking its own healthy cells or components.

Autoimmune hepatitis –  inflammation of the liver causing chronic liver disease, associated with celiac disease. .

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome -  presence in the body of several auto-immune diseases involving glandular tissue such as diabetes, thyroiditis and Addison’s disease.

Autoimmune thyroiditis -  an immunologially mediated thyroid disease characterized by insufficient thyroid hormone circulating in the body due to autoimmune destruction of thyroid tissue, an associated disorder of celiac disease.

Avenin – gluten prolamin found in oats.

B

Barley – grain that contains the protein gluten, called hordein, that is toxic to people with sensitivity.   Benign - not malignant, favorable for recovery.

Biopsy – the obtaining of a tissue sample for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.

Bitot’s spots – small foamy patches on the sclera (white of eye), a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Bleeding, unexplained - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Blepharitis – inflammation of eyelids, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Blindness  - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Blood brain barrier - tight junctions that control the passage of substances from the bloodstream to nerve tissue of the brain.

Bloodshot eyes – visibly enlarged vessels in white of eye, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Blood studies, abnormal -  a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

  • Elevated:    Alkaline phosphatase enzyme, homocysteine, prolactin, prothrombin time, liver enzymes.
  • Low:    Calcium, cholesterol, copper, sugar, potassium, magnesium, omega fatty acids, phosphorus, protein, vitamins, zinc.

Brain atrophy – loss of brain tissue.

Bronchiectasis - chronic dilatation of the bronchi or main airways of the lungs.

Blurred vision - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Bone pain - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

C

Cachexia - extreme loss of weight and body wasting - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Candida albicans infection – overgrowth and invasion of the mucosa that lines the GI tract by this yeast that typically lives in small colonies, associated with celiac disease.

Capillary - smallest blood vessels in the circulatory system that deliver oxygen and glucose into cells and pick up waste products to be carried away such as carbon dioxide.

Carbohydrate – the main source of food energy for the body that composes sugars starches and fiber found in fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, milk, honey, table sugar, fructose, molasses and to a small extent, meat.

Carbohydrate malabsorption – failure to digest and absorb carbohydrates adequately from the diet.

Cheilosis - red lips, cracking/ oozing at corners of mouth, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Colonic volvulus - loop of intestine twists causing strangulation of intestine.

Carbohydrate – an organic compound composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Carbohydrates include glucose, sugars, starches, dextrins, and celluloses from plants and glucose, glycogen, and lactose from animals. The simple sugars, glucose, galactose, and fructose, are the end products of carbohydrate digestion, and as such, are absorbed into the bloodstream and used as a basic source of energy.

Cardiomegaly - hypertrophy (enlargement) of the heart, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Casein – a protein in dairy (cow milk) products.

Casein enteropathy - an intolerance to casein, a milk protein, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestinal mucosa that is similar to gluten intolerance. The immune system produces IgA and IgG antibodies against undigested casein peptides. These antibodies can be detected with a simple, accurate blood serum test.

Casomorphine – a peptide resulting from the incomplete digestion of casein.

Cataracts -  clouding of the eye lens, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Cell - The basic unit of any living organism. It is a small, watery, compartment filled with chemicals and a complete copy of the organism's genome.   Cerebral perfusion abnormalities - poor blood flow (perfusion) to brain tissue, associated with celiac disease.

Chromosomes - one of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.

Cholangitis - inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree.

Chronic - a condition with slow onset, mild but continuous manifestations and long-lasting, often progressive effects

Cholecyst - the gallbladder.

Cholelithiasis - presence of concretions ("gall stones") in the gallbladder or bile ducts.

Clubbing - proliferation of soft tissue about the ends of fingers and toes, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Colonocytes – Cells that form the surface lining of the large intestine.

Contusion -  an injury of a part without a break in the skin, characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Collagen – a strong, fibrous, insoluble protein in connective tissue, including skin, deep fascia, tendons, ligaments and bone.

Congenital - an abnormal condition present at birth, stemming from genetic or non-genetic causes.

Copper, low - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Cross contamination – in gluten sensitivity, when a safe food comes in contact with gluten at some point during its harvesting, transportation, production, storage or serving.

Crypt – a small cavity between villi extending into the epithelial surface of the small intestine.

Cytokine – a protein secreted by immune cells to activate more immune cells to respond to an allergy.

CT (computerized tomography) - radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures.

Cyanosis - a bluish discoloration of skin, lips, nail beds or mucous membranes due to excessive concentrations of reduced hemoglobin in blood and hence deficient oxygenation of blood, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

D

Defective tooth enamel - yellow, white spots, missing enamel, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Delayed gastric emptying - early fullness after eating.   Dehydration – insufficient water in the body due to imbalance between intake and the output of fluid through urine, sweat, vomiting, diarrhea or respiration.

Dementia – progressive deterioration of intellectual function, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Depression - a mood disorder characterized by absence of cheerfulness, dejection, and loss of interest or pleasure in living, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Dermatitis herpetiformis – a skin manifestation of celiac disease characterized by intensely itchy blisters primarily on elbow, knees and buttocks.

Diabetic instability -  a non-gastrointestinal presentation of gluten sensitive enteropathy characterized by fluctuation in blood glucose level.

Digestion – enzymes are secreted by glands in the mouth, stomach, pancreas and small intestine that break down food into their constituent molecules that can be absorbed into the body.

Dyspareunia - painful intercourse, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Duodenal erosions in the second part of duodenum – shallow ulcers characteristic of celiac disease.

Degenerative - progressive and often irreversible deterioration.

Delayed Puberty in Boys - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Delayed Puberty in Girls - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Dilatation - the condition of being stretched beyond normal dimensions, usually in a tubular sructure or an opening.

DNA - The chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms. Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that contains the genetic code for all life forms except for a few viruses. It consists of two long, twisted chains made up of nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains one base, one phosphate molecule, and the sugar molecule deoxyribose. The bases in DNA nucleotides are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – an omega-3 fatty acid essential for brain development and structure, most abundant in the brain and retina.

Duct - a passage with well-defined walls, especially a tubular structure for the passage of excretions or secretions.

Dysbiosis – imbalance of microbe colonies and populations in the gastrointestinal tract.

Dysmenorrhea - painful menstruation, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Dysphagia - painful or difficulty swallowing, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

E

Early menopause – permanent cessation of menstruation occurring 2 to 4 years earlier in women with celiac disease.

Easy bruising (ecchymosis) - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Eczema – skin disorder characterized by failure to hold moisture, becoming dry the inflamed, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Edema – swelling, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Epilepsy - recurring seizures, with or without calcification, in the occipital area of the brain that can develop without the more classic mal-absorptive symptoms of celiac disease.

Electrolytes - ionized (charged) salts, such as sodium, chloride and potassium, in blood, tissue and body fluids that are essential in cell function, maintaining fluid balance and acid-base balance.

Endomysium – loose, irregular connective tissue that lies between muscle cells, covering muscle fibers and holding them together.

Endoscopy – a procedure to inspect the hollow organs of upper digestive tract by use of an endoscope. An endoscope is a medical device consisting of a long, thin tube and an optical device. Observable organs include the esophagus, stomach, and proximal small intestine.

Enterocytes – Cells that form the surface lining of the small intestine.

Enteropathy – any disease of the intestine, including celiac disease (gluten sensitive enteropathy).

Enzyme – a substance (usually a protein) that speeds up, or catalyzes, a chemical reaction without being permanently altered or consumed. Enzymes carry out the thousands of chemical reactions that go on in a cell. Enzymes help make other molecules, including DNA. Enzymes also break food down and deliver and consume the energy that powers the cell. Other kinds of proteins, called regulatory proteins, preside over the many interactions that determine how and when genes do their work and are copied. Regulatory proteins also supervise enzymes and the give-and-take between cells and their environment.

Epitope – the part of an antigen to which an antibody binds.

Erythema - diffuse or patchy redness of skin, blanching on pressure, due to congestion of cutaneous capillaries.

Erythrocytes – Mature red blood cells that contain hemoglobin for the purpose of carrying oxygen to other cells. Nutrients necessary for the proper formation of erythrocytes are essential amino acids, vitamin B12 and folic acid. Nutrients necessary for the production of hemoglobin are iron, cobalt, and copper.

Esophageal motor abnormalities - poor muscle activity/coordination.

Essential fatty acid – A component together with glycerol in a 3 to 1 ratio that makes up fat. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are not made by the body. These 3 essential fatty acids are necessary for health and must be obtained in the diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be made from ALA and arachidonic acid can be made from LA if sufficient amounts are present. DHA, EPA, and AA should be included in a healthy diet.

F

Failure to thrive and growth retardation - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Fecal occult blood - blood in stool found under a microscope that is not visible to the naked eye, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Fatigue/ Lassitude - a state of weariness not relieved by rest, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Fibrinogen - a coagulation factor.

Follicular hyperkeratosis - dry rough skin/ plugged hair follicles on body especially on the backs of arms, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Fructose – a simple sugar that is easily absorbed from the small intestine and does not require insulin for metabolism. Part of honey and fruits.

G

Galactose – a simple sugar that together with glucose makes up milk sugar (lactose).

Gas -  a well known symptom of celiac disease characterized by production of mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas in the lumen due to bacterial fermentation, altered motility, and dysbiosis.

Gastro-Intestinal occult bleeding - blood in stool is not visible to the naked eye, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Gums bleeding/ swollen - purplish in adults/ red in children, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Gastrointestinal tract – parts of the body that receive food, digest it into nutrients, absorb these nutrients into the bloodstream and eliminate the waste from the body. The gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, colon, rectum and anus.

Genes - the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

Genetic marker - a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome and whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of a gene that has not yet been identified, but whose approximate location is known.

Genetic screening - testing a population group to identify a subset of individuals at high risk for having or transmitting a specific genetic disorder.   Genome - all the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.

Gliadin – gluten protein that is in wheat.

Genotype - the genetic identity of an individual that does not show as outward characteristics.

Glutamine – a non-essential amino acid needed for maintaining health of the intestinal lining.

Gluten - a protein in wheat, rye, barley, and oats grains that is toxic to persons with celiac disease and other forms of gluten sensitivity.

Grave's Disease (hyperthyroidism) -  an immunologially mediated thyroid disease characterized by diffuse nontender goiter, elevated thyroxine levels, suppressed TSH, and presence of thyroid receptor antibodies, an associated disorder of celiac disease.

H

Hangnail - partly detached piece of skin at root or lateral edge of fingernail or toenail, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Haplotype – a haplotype is the set of SNP (single nucliotide polymorphism) alleles along a region of a chromosome. Theoretically there could be many haplotypes in a chromosome region, but recent studies are typically finding only a few common haplotypes. Some SNP alleles are the actual functional variants that contribute to the risk of getting a disease. Individuals with such a SNP allele have a higher risk for that disease than do individuals without that SNP allele.

Headache – pain in the head, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Heartburn – burning pain in the esophagus, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hepatic granulomatous disease -  an immunologically mediated infiltrative chronic liver disorder characterized by growth of small granulomas, associated with celiac disease.

H. Pylori Bacter infection – invasion of the stomach lining by this organism, associated with celiac disease.

Hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Hemoglobin - the oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells (erythrocytes).

Hemorrhage - bleeding from the blood vessels.

Hepatocytes - liver cells.

Hepatomegaly - enlargement of the liver.

Histology - the study of the microscopic structure of tissue.

Histopathology – the study of diseased microscopic structure.

Hordein – gluten protein found in barley.

Hormone - substances released into the bloodstream by glands or organs, which affect activity in cells at another site. For example, corticosteroids released by the adrenal glands and insulin by the pancreas.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) – a distinguishing series of proteins that exist on the surface of every white blood cell to help the cell discriminate between “friendly” cells and “foreign” matter like bacteria and viruses.

Humoral immunity – a term that refers to antibody production. The aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies that are produced by B cells. Secreted antibodies bind to antigens, flagging them for destruction.

Hypersensitivity - a state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign agent.

Hypertension - high arterial blood pressure, usually above 140 mm Hg systolic (top number indicating the highest pressure in blood vessels) and 90 mm Hg diastolic (bottom number indicating the lowest pressure in blood vessels), a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis - acute, severe potassium deficiency, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hypocalciuria – low calcium content of urine, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hypoglycemia – condition of having too low glucose level in the blood. a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hypotension - low blood pressure, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hypotonia – abnormally low muscle tone, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Hypoxia - reduced supply of oxygen to tissues (below physiologic levels) despite normal blood perfusion, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

I

Idiopathic - occurring without known cause.

Ileum - the furthest or distal portion of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum or junction with colon.

Immunity – there are 2 basic divisions:

  1. Cell-mediated immunity -  immune system response to foreign material performed by specific defense cells such as white blood cells rather than antibodies.
  2. Humoral Immunity – immune system response performed by specific antibodies called immunoglobulins that circulate through the blood and lymph system.

Inflammation - body's immunologic response to tissue damage that results in redness and swelling.

Impotence - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Inability to concentrate - mental dysfunction characterized by trouble fixing the mind on one subject to the exclusion of all other thoughts, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Infertility in females - inability to become pregnant, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Infertility in males - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Inherited - transmitted through genes from parents to offspring.

Insomnia – difficulty sleeping, fallinf asleep or staying asleep, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Irritable bowel syndrome -  an associated motility disorder without anatomic cause involving the entire GI tract characterized by 1) abdominal pain usually relieved by defecation or passing of gas, 2) disturbance of evacuation, 3) bloating and abdominal distention, and 4) mucus in the stool. There is an overlap of IBS symptoms with those of CD, and selected patients should be tested for the latter disease.

Irritability - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Intrauterine growth retardation – subnormal growth and development of fetus in utero, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Itchy skin rash - pruritis, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Intussusception - when a segment of the intestine becomes telescoped into an immediately adjacent part.

Iron – an essential mineral required for hemoglobin formation.

Ischemia - deficiency of blood in a part of the body.

J

Jaundice - yellowness of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes and excretions due to increased bilirubin in the blood and deposition of bile pigments.

Jejunitis, chronic – inflammation of the mucosal lining of the jejunem.

Jerusalem artichoke – a tuber rich in inulin, a prebiotic.

K

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca – an autoimmune disease of the eyeball characterized by  inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.

Kidney stones – crystallization of calcium and oxalate from high concentrations in the urine, forming composites in the kidneys, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Koilonychia  - condition of thin nails that flatten, ends progressively turning up instead of down, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

L

Lactose - a complex sugar found in milk and milk products from mammals. Lactose must be broken down by lactase into the simple sugars galactose and glucose in order to be absorbed.

Lactase - an intestinal enzyme that is needed to digest lactose. The lack of lactase results in lactose intolerance – see below.

Lactose intolerance – inability to digest lactose into its component sugars, glucose and galactose due to a deficiency of lactase enzyme. Undigested lactose sugar ferments in the colon producing gas, bloating, cramps, abdominal cramping and diarrhea after drinking milk or products containing lactose.

Lamina propria – the thin layer of areolar connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves that lie just below the large intestine.

Laryngospasm – the spasm of the muscles of the larynx, resulting in airway constriction.

Leukocyte – a white blood cell.

Leukocytosis - an increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) due to gluten.

Locus - the place on a chromosome where a specific gene is located, a kind of address for the gene. The plural is "loci."

Loss of vitality – unwillingness to live, , a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Lymph -  a watery fluid containing white blood cells and antibodies that permeates body tissues, passes through lymph node for cleansing and eventually returning to the blood stream.

Lymphadenopathy - disease of the lymph nodes.

Lymphatic System - consists of lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, the tonsils, adenoids, thymus gland and spleen.

Lymphocyte – a small white blood cell that plays a major role in defending the body against disease. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B cells, which make antibodies that attack bacteria and toxins, and T cells, which attack body cells themselves when they have been taken over by viruses or become cancerous.

B lymphocytes (B cells) – A subpopulation of lymphocytes derived from the bone marrow, make up 10% of all lymphocytes. When B cells come in contact with a foreign antigen, they are stimulated by T cells to mature.  Mature B cells differentiate into plasma cells or memory cells that produce antibodies. Plasma cells are the only source of immunoglobulin antibodies. Memory cells enable the body to quickly produce antibodies to previously identified foreign invaders.

T lymphocyte (T cells) – A subpopulation of lymphocytes derived from the thymus gland, make up 75% of all lymphocytes. T cells stimulate B cells to begin antibody production for attaching to antigens, making them easier to digest by white cells.

Lymphokine – a distinct signaling protein released by lymphocytes.

M

Malabsorption – failure to properly absorb nutrients from food. Symptoms of malabsorption include weight loss, malnutrition, diarrhea, abdominal bloating, flatulence, and steatorrhea.

Maltose -  sugar that makes up starches and is itself composed of glucose.

Maltose Intolerance – inability to digest maltose into glucose, causing gas, bloating, loose stools

Menarche - the first menstrual period or menses, usually occurring during puberty.

Menarche, late  - start of menstrual periods after 14 years, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Melanoma – a malignant skin cancer.

Menorrhea - the normal discharge of the menses.

Menses - the monthly flow of blood from the genital tract of a woman.

Morbidity - the condition of being diseased or sick.

Muscle pain and tenderness - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Muscle spasm and cramps - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Muscle wasting - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Muscle weakness - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Myocyte - a muscle cell.

N

Nails, dry and brittle that chip, peel, crack or break easily - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Nails with horizontal and vertical ridges/fragile - a feature of multiple nutrient deficiencies in celiac disease…not a disease.

Nail with rounded and curved down ends, dark, dry - a feature of vitamin B12 deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Nails with white spots - a feature of zinc deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Nails with splinter hemorrhages  - a feature of vitamin C deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Nausea - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Nightblindness – difficulty seeing in twilight or darkness, a feature of vitamin A deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver -  a non-inflammatory hepatic disorder characterized by degenerative changes in the liver secondary to excessive accumulation of lipid (fat) in hepatocytes and caused by malnutrition especially protein deficiency.

Nosebleeds, unexplained - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

O

Oats – a grain that contains avenin, a gluten protein.

Obesity - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Occult - not visible to the naked eye.

Oral mucosal lesions – sores in the mouth.

Osteoporosis - a common disease of the formation of bone leading to fragile bones and fractures, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

P

Pancreatic insufficiency – failure to produce adequate pancreatic enzymes for digestion.

Paresthesia - any abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling, often in the absence of external stimuli.

Pathogen - a disease-causing microorganism or agent.

Pathogenesis - the development of disease.

Pathophysiology – the study of how normal physiological processes are altered by disease.

Penicilllin V impaired absorption – failure of gut to properly absorb this antibiotic due to celiac disease.

Peptide - a protein with a small number of amino acids.

Perfusion - transport of blood through blood vessels from heart to body tissues.

Peristalsis - strong muscle movements of the digestive tract propelling its contents towards the anus.

Phenotype - the observable traits or characteristics of an organism, for example hair color, weight, or the presence or absence of a disease. Phenotypic traits are not necessarily genetic.

Prostaglandins -  regulatory molecules that cause inflammation, spasm of lung bronchioles and vasodilation of blood vessels.

Prebiotic – a food that promtes the growth and maintenance of friendly microbes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis - scarring of bile ducts in liver.

Prevalence – the number of cases of a disease present in a specified population at a given time.

Probiotic – friendly live microorganisms that live in the human gut and promote health.

Prognosis – the prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimate of recovery.

Prophylaxis - treatment or measures to prevent disease.

Protease - a protein that digests other proteins.

Proteolysis - the breaking up of proteins.

Protein - a molecule or complex of molecules consisting of subunits called amino acids. Proteins are the cell's main building materials, and they do most of a cell's work. Thanks to proteins, cells and the organisms they form develop, live their lives, and create descendants. Proteins are big, complicated molecules that must be folded into intricate three-dimensional shapes in order to work correctly. To perform its many functions, a cell constantly needs new copies of proteins. Although proteins do lots of jobs well, they cannot make copies of themselves.

Pruritis - intense itching, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Puerperal - relating to childbirth; the interval including the time of labor and recent post-delivery period.

R

Regurgitation - flow in the opposite direction than normal, e.g. throwing up of undigested food.

Relapse - a return to a previous poor or ill condition.

Rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic inflammatory disease primarily causing pain in the joints.

Rickets – deformity of bones in children causing bowed legs or knock knees that results from vitamin D deficiency, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Risk Factor - anything in the environment, personal characteristics, or events that make it more or less likely that an individual might develop a disease. The risk factors for celiac disease include having a close relative with celiac disease, carrying the HLA DQ2 and/or HLA DQ8 genotype and eating gluten.  Other predisposing factors include pregnancy, stress, surgery and gastrointestinal infection.   Rye – a grain that contains the toxic gluten protein (seculin).

S

Safe food – a food that does not contain gluten.

Scurvy - a disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C.

Secalin – name of the toxic protein in rye.

Seizure - convulsion.

Sequela(e) - the consequence(s) following a disease.

Short stature  - failure to attain normal height, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Sign - an objective indication or evidence of disease discovered on examination of a patient.

Smell, loss of – inability to properly detect or distinguish odors or aromas, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Spasm - a sudden, violent, involuntary muscle contraction; a sudden tightening of a passage or canal.

Spastic - characterized by spasms or other uncontrolled contractions of the skeletal muscles; muscles are stiff and the movements awkward, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Spelt – a  variety of wheat that contains the toxic protein gluten.

Sperm abnormalities - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Splenomegaly - enlargement of the spleen.

Symptom - evidence of disease as perceived and reported by a patient that cannot be seen or otherwise personally detected by the examiner.

Small bowel intussusception - one loop of intestine slips into another adjacent to it.

Steatorrhea - pale, smelly, floating stool hard to flush or sticks to toilet resulting from fat malabsorption.

Sucrose Intolerance - inability to digest sucrose such as table sugar from sugar cane into glucose and fructose, causing gas, bloating, loose stools.

Short duration of breast feeding – inability to adequately nurse the infant beyond 2 months, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

T

Tachycardia - abnormally fast heart beat, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Tetany - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Thin hair - see alopecia.

Taste, loss of – inability to properly detect chemical attributes of food, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Thrombocytopenia - an abnormally small number or decrease of circulating platelets in the blood.

Thrombosis - the inappropriate or pathological formation of a clot within a blood vessel or organ.

Tongue (beefy, red, smooth, burning) - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Tongue (Fiery red, smooth, swollen, sore) - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Tongue (Magenta, swollen) - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Tongue (Pale, smooth, burning) - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.   Transglutaminase – an enzyme in endomysium tissue that combines with gliadin to form the epitope that is reportedly the autoantigen in celiac disease.

Tremors - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Triticale – a hybrid cross of wheat and rye that contains the toxic gluten protein.

U

Ulcer – an sore in the surface of an organ or tissue produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflamed tissue.

Ultrasound procedure – the direction of inaudible sound waves in the frequency range of 10,000 to 10 billion cycles/ second for the purpose of outlining the shape of various tissues and organs in the body and so permitting “visualization” of them on the monitor screen.

Urea - the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds; found in urine, blood, and lymph.

Urinary tract infection - a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Urticaria, chronic (hives) – itchy swellings that result from an immune response.

Uveitis, bilateral – inflammation of the front of the eye, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

V

Vaginitis – inflammation of the vagina, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Vasculitis - inflammation of a vessel.

Veins - vessels that return blood to the heart from the body.

Villus – one of millions of minute structures of the intestinal mucosa that project into the intestinal lumen for the purpose of absorbing passing nutrients into the blood and lymph system. Villi enzymes digest the sugars lactose, sucrose, and maltose and finish digestion of peptides.

Vitiligo – autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, causing loss of skin color.

Volvulus - twisting of a loop of intestine causing an obstruction and which may impair blood supply resulting in infarction.

Vomiting – regurgitation of stomach contents through the mouth, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

W

Weakness – insufficient strength to perform work, a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Weight gain, unexplained – unintentional weight gain may result from maldigestion that dumps large amount of food stuffs into the colon where microbes ferment it into short chain fatty acids that are readilt absorbed into the body and stored as fat.a feature of nutrient deficiency in celiac disease…not a disease.

Weight loss, unexplained – unintentional weight loss may result from diarrhea, vomiting and multiple nutrient deficiencies in celiac disease…not a disease.

Wheat – a grain that contains the most toxic gluten protein called gliadin.

X

Xanthan gum – a product derived from a species of bacteria that takes the place of gluten in bakery products.